Articles, Media, and References

Article and Media References:

References for the written articles on our site vary. They reflect our research and are updated weekly.

  • Our single written articles have references at their conclusion; we also include this for additional research.
  • Our video media segments are used as primary and secondary references
  • Visitors can also search our podcast, social media and blogs for references
  • African American Registry has added a career choice resource link to compliment many of the written articles by using the U.S. Department of Labor website. The link reads like “To be a Doctor”, etc.

The government’s occupational outlook links cover many career choices and we place them to make heritage real as applied to those interested in occupation and professions. Because the Registry is an ongoing Web Site project, this link and our article references will occasionally overlap and continue to expand.  Our gratitude goes to all information sources on this page and after each individual article.

Historic U.S. Cases  1690-1993
An Encyclopedia New York
Copyright 1992  Garland Publishing,   New York
ISBN 0-8240-4430-4

Black Americans In Congress 1870-1989.
Bruce A. Ragsdale & Joel D. Treese
U.S. Government Printing Office
Raymond W. Smock, historian and director 1990

Library of Congress
101 Independence Avenue S.E.
Washington D.C.  20540

The United States Department of the Interior
National Park Services,
National Register of Historic Places

The Choctaw Freedmen

by Robert Flickingsen
Heritage Books

African American and Native American History
Princeton Public Library
65 Witherspoon Street
Princeton, NJ  08542

History of American  Slavery
by Duncan Clarke   JG Press
Copyright 1998 PRC Publishing Ltd.
ISBN   1 57215 256 7

Black Leaders of the Nineteenth Century.
Edited by  Leon Litwack and August Meier
Copyright 1998,  University if Illinois Press
ISBN  0-252-06213-2

The Autobiography of Martin Luther King, Jr.

edited by Clayborne Carson
Warner Books, copyright 1998
ISBN 0-446-67650-0

The Judge Who Shaped Civil Rights
by Jack Bass.

American Bar Association Journal, December 1994

Judge Johnson Buried in the Alabama Hills:
The New York Times, July 28, 1999
Copyright 1999, The New York Times Co.

The Last Year of Malcolm X
The Revolution of a Revolutionary
by George Breitman
Merit Publishers
Library of Congress # 67-20467
Copyright 1967

Fredrick L. McGhee, A Life on the Color Line
Paul Nelson
Minnesota Historical Society Press, St. Paul, MN.
Copyright 2001

Cecil E. Newman, Newspaper Publisher
by L. E. Leipold Ph.D.
T.S. Denison & Company, Inc.  Minneapolis

African Americans and South Carolina:
History, Politics, and Culture
Dr. Phebe Davidson
University of South Carolina-Aiken

Mississippi Department of Archives and History 
MHN, P.O. Box 571,
Jackson, MS 39205

Cincinnati Historical Society Library
A guide to 20th Century African American Resources
1301 Western Avenue
Cincinnati, Ohio 45203
Phone: 513-287-7030
Fax: 513-287-7095

Black Archives of Mid-America
2033 Vine Street
Kansas City, Missouri 64108

Charles H. Wright Museum of African American History
315 East Warren Avenue, Detroit, MI 48201
General Information (313) 494-5800

Outside In
African American History in Iowa 1838-2000
by Bill Silag, Susan-Koch Bridgford, Hal Chase
Copyright 2001
Published by the State Historical Society if Iowa
ISBN 0-8033-013-1

Sovereigns of Themselves:
A Liberating History of Oregon and Its Coast
Connie Guardino III, with Rev. Marilyn A. Riedel
2003, Maracon Productions

The Black West by William Loren Katz. 
A Touchtone Book, published by Simon & Shuster Inc.
Copyright 1987, 1996 by Ethrac Publications, Inc.
ISBN 0-684-81478-1


The African American Atlas
Black History & Culture an Illustrated Reference
by Molefi K. Asanta and Mark T. Mattson
Macmillan USA, Simon & Schuster, New York
ISBN 0-02-864984-2

A Pictorial History of Black Americans
by Langston Hughes, Milton Meltzer & L. Eric Lincoln
Copyright 1956, Crown Publishers, N.Y.
ISBN 0-517-55072-5

Thomson Gale
27500 Drake Road
Farmington Hills, MI 48331      248-699-4253

African Americans/Voices of Triumph
by Dr. Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Copyright 1993, TimeLife Inc.

The Encyclopedia of African American Heritage
by Susan Altman
Copyright 1997, Facts on File, Inc.  New York
ISBN 0-8160-3289-0

Black Saga  The African American Experience A Chronology
by Charles M. Christian
Copyright 1995, Civitas/Counterpoint
ISBN 1-58243-000-4

The biographical dictionary of Black Americans
by Rachel Krantz and Elizabeth A.Ryan
Copyright 1992,  Facts on File,  New York, NY
ISBN 0-8160-2324-7

The Encyclopedia Britannica, Twenty-fourth Edition.
Copyright 1996  Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.
ISBN  0-85229-633-0

The World Book Encyclopedia.
Copyright  1996, World Book, Inc.
ISBN  0-7166-0096-X

1001 things everyone should know about African American History
by Jeffery C. Stewart,
Copyright 1996,   Doubleday
ISBN 0-385-47309-5

Reference Library of Black America Volumes 1 through 5
Edited by Mpho Mabunda
Copyright 1998, Gale Research, Detroit, MI

Black First:
2,000 years of extraordinary achievement 
by Jessie Carney Smith
Copyright 1994 Visible Ink Press, Detroit, MI
ISBN 0-8103-9490-1

Black Heroes of The Twentieth Century
Edited by  Jessie Carney Smith
Copyright  1998 Visible Ink Press, Detroit, MI
ISBN 1-57859-021-3

Encyclopedia of African American Culture and History
Volume 1, ISBN #0-02-897345-3
Jack Salzman, David Lionel Smith, Cornel West

Memories of the Southern Civil Rights Movement
By Danny Lyon
Copyright 1992, University of North Carolina Press
ISBN 0-80782054-7

The Black Book
By Middleton Harris with assistance from:
Morris Levitt, Roger Furman, and Ernest Smith
Copyright 1974, Random House, New York
ISBN 0-394-48388-X

Africana The Encyclopedia of the African and
African American Experience
Editors: Kwame Anthony Appiah and Henry Louis Gates Jr.
Copyright 1999
ISBN 0-465-0071-1

The Black 100, a ranking of the most influential
African Americans past and present.
by Columbus Salley, A Citadel Press Book
Copyright 1993
ISBN 0-8065-1299-7

Nigger and Caricatures
Dr. David Pilgrim, Dept. of Sociology
Ferris State University, 2001

The African American Desk Reference
Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
Copyright 1999 The Stonesong Press Inc. and
The New York Public Library, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Pub.
ISBN 0-471-23924-0

Wikimedia Foundation
204 37th Avenue North Suite330
St. Petersburg, FL. 33704

Contemporary Black Biography, various volumes
Edited by Shirelle Phelps
Copyright 1999 by Gale Research, Detroit, London
ISBN 0-7876-1275-8

Black Past
4816 25th Avenue N.E., PMB 222
Seattle, Washington 98105


The Associated Press

450 W. 33rd St.,
New York, NY 10001.

The Houston Chronicle
from staff reports
Nov 24, 1992

Star Tribune
Associated Press
425 Portland Ave. S.,
Minneapolis, MN 55488

The New York Times Company

620 Eighth Avenue
New York, NY 10018

SF Gate, San Francisco Croncile
901 Mission Street
San Francisco, CA 94103
415 777 1111


Ebony Magazine
Johnson Publishing
820 South Michigan Avenue
Chicago IL 60605

Ebony Magazine
Special Issue-The Bicentennial

A Johnson Publication   August 1975
Volume XXX   No. 10
820 South Michigan Avenue
Chicago IL 60605

Ebony Magazine
Special Issue-Africa Continent Of The Future

A Johnson Publication   August 1976
Volume XXXI   No. 10
820 South Michigan Avenue
Chicago IL 60605

Pictorial History of Black America
By the editors of Ebony, Vol. 1 through 4
Copyright 1971,
Johnson Publishing Co., Chicago, Ill
ISBN 0-87485-049-5

Jet Magazine
Johnson Publishing
820 South Michigan Avenue
Chicago IL 60605

American Legacy Magazine
Various article authors
519 Barcliff Road
Bolingbrook, Ill  60440-9855


Great African American Women
By Darryl Lyman
Jonathan David Publisher, Inc. Middle Village, NY
Copyright 1999
ISBN 0-8246-0412-1

The Book of African American Women
150 Crusaders, Creators, and Uplifters
by Tonya Bolden
Adams Media
ISBN 1-58062-928-8

Black Women in America An Historical Encyclopedia 
Volumes 1 and 2,  edited by Darlene Clark Hine
Copyright 1993, Carlson Publishing Inc., Brooklyn, New York
ISBN 0-926019-61-9

I Dream A World: Portraits of Black Women Who Changed America
Edited by Barbara Summers
Photos and Interviews by Brian lanker
Copyright 1989, workman Publishing
ISBN 1-555670-063-6

The Oxford Companion to Women’s Writing in the United States. 
Ed. Cathy N. Davidson, Linda Wagner-Martin.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Copyright © 1995 by Oxford University Press.

The Face of Our Past
Images of Black Women from Colonial America to the Present
Edited by Kathleen Thompson and Hilary Mac Austin
Copyright1999, Indiana University Press
ISBN 0-253-336535-X

Fifty Black Women Who Changed America
by Amy Alexander. A Birch Lane Press Book,
Carol Publishing Group 1999
ISBN 1-55972-478-1

Who’s Who of American Women (and Women of Canada)
Fifth Edition 1968-1969
The A. N. Marqui’s Company
Chicago, Illinois 60611


An Encyclopedia of African American Christian Heritage
by Marvin Andrew McMickle
Judson Press, Copyright 2002
ISBN 0-817014-02-0

Kwanzaa a celebration of family, community, and culture
by Maulana Karenga,
University of Sankore Press, Los Angeles
Copyright 1998, by Malulana Karenga
ISBN 0-943412-21-8


A History of African American Artist from 1792 to present
by Romare Bearden & Harry Henderson
Copyright 1993 by Romare Bearden & Harry Henderson
Pantheon Books, NY
ISBN 0-394-57016-2

The St. James Guide to Black Artist
Edited by Thomas Riggs
Copyright 1997,  St. James Press,  Detroit, MI
ISBN 1-55862-220-9

The Academy of American Poets
75 Maiden Lane, Suite 901
New York, NY 10038


The Negro Baseball Leagues A Photographic History
By Phil Dixon with Patrick J. Hannigan
Copyright 1992, Jed Clauss and Joanna Paulsen
Ameron House Publishing
ISBN 0-88488-0425-2

Ain’t no fat on my eye,” Earl Battey Jr.
Kwame’s Kapsules Kwame McDonald
MN Spokesman-Recorder newspaper
11/27/03 to 12/3/03

20th Century Baseball Chronicle
Year-By-Year History of major league Baseball
Copyright 1999, Publications International Ltd.
ISBN 0-7853-4074-2

Black Ice
The Lost History of the Colored Hockey League of the Maritimes, 1895-1925.
by George and Darril Frosty
Stryker-Indigo Publishing Co., Inc./NY
ISBN 0-9651168-1-7

Boxing Album: An Illustrated History
by Peter Brooke Bell
Smithmark Publisher, 1995
ISBN 0831748109

The First Tee Off,
Langston Golf Course
by Linwood E. Barnes

The National Collegiate Athletic Association
700 W. Washington Street
P.O. Box 6222
Indianapolis, Indiana 46206-6222

USA Track & Field
One RCA Dome, Suite 140
Indianapolis, IN 46225
317-261-0500 (phone)
317-261-0481 (fax)

Pro Football Hall of Fame
2121 George Halas Drive NW
Canton, Ohio 44708
(330) 456-8207

The Exclusion of Blacks from the National Football League, 1934-1946
By Thomas G. Smith, Professor of History, Nichols College
The Coffin Corner Volume XI
Originally publisher, The Journal of Sport History

Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame
1000 West Columbus Avenue
Springfield, MA 01105

Along The Elephant Trail
Philadelphia Athletics Historical Society, Inc.
6 N. York Road, Hatboro, PA 19040

Churchill Downs
700 Central Avenue
Louisville, KY  40208

Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
515 Malcolm X Boulevard
New York, NY 10037-1801
(212) 491-2200

The Minneapolis Public Library Hosmer Branch
347 East 36th Street
Minneapolis, MN 55408

Minnesota Historical Society
345 W. Kellogg Blvd.
Saint Paul, MN  55102-1906


Black American Colleges and Universities:

Profiles of Two-Year, Four-Year, & Professional Schools
by Levirn Hill, Pub., Gale Group, 1994
ISBN:  0-02-864984-2

Wilberforce University
Archives and Special Collections
Rambert E. Stokes Learning Resource Center
P.O. Box 1003
Wilberforce, Ohio  45384

Hamline University
Mick Caouette, Producer
Humphrey Documentary Project
St. Paul, Minnesota  55104

Middlebury College
Middlebury, VT.  05753

Holmes Avenue Elementary School
Los Angeles Unified School District
5108 Holmes Avenue
Los Angeles, CA  90058

USC Office of Black Alumni Programs
University of Southern California
Widney Alumni House
635 Childs Way
Los Angeles, CA  90089-0461

A Century of Jazz
by Roy Carr
Da Capo Press, New York
Copyright 1997
ISBN 0-306-80778-5

All That Jazz The Illustrated Story of Jazz Music
General Editor:  Ronald Atkins
Copyright 1996, Carlton Books Limited
ISBN  0-76519-953-X

Jazz: A History of the New York Scene
Samuel Charters and Leonard Kunstadt
(Doubleday, Garden City, N.Y., 1962)

Jazz People
by Harry N. Abrams, Incorporated, New York
Copyright 1976
ISBN 0-8109-1152-3

All Media Guide 
1168 Oak Valley Drive
Ann Arbor, MI 48108 USA

ASCAP Biographical Dictionary
R. R. Bowker Co., Copyright 1980
ISBN 0-8351-1283-1

Heart & Soul
A Celebration of Black Music Style in America 1930-1975
by Merlis Davin Seay, Forward by Etta James
Copyright 2002, Billboard Books
ISBN 0-8230-8314-4

Nothing But the Blues  The Music and the Musicians
Edited by Lawrence Cohn
Copyright 1993 Abbeville Publishing Group, New York
ISBN 1-55859-271-7


Created Equal 
The Lives and Ideas of Black American Innovators
By James Michael Brodie
Copyright 1993, by Bill Adler Books, Inc.
William Morrow and Co. Inc., New York
ISBN 0-688-11536-5

U.S. Patent and Trademark Office
Mail Stop USPTO Contact Center
P.O. Box 1450
Alexandria, VA 22313


Fountainhead® Tanz Theatre Black International Cinema,
Angela Kramer, Production Co-coordinator
Hohenfriedbergstraße 14
D-10829 Berlin, Germany
Tel: 49 (30) 782 1621
Fax: 49 (30) 786 3466

The Ghost Walks:
A Chronological History of Blacks in Show Business 1865-1910
Henry T. Sampson
Scarecrow Press (Metuchen, NJ., 1988)

Primetime Blues: African Americans on Network Television 
by Donald Bogle
Copyright 2001 Farrar, Straus and Giroux
ISBN: 0374527180

Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Academy Foundation
8949 Wilshire Boulevard
Beverly Hills, California 90211
Phone: 310-247-3000

The African American Registry®
Poetry/Lyric Sources

In Search of Color Everywhere
A Collection of African American Poetry.
Edited by E. Ethelbert Miller, Stewart Tabori & Chang N.Y.1994
ISBN 1-55670-339-2

New Black Writing  Africa, West Indies, America’s
Vol. 21, No. 2  Vol. 22,
No.1 NIMROD, a literary review
Copyright 1977, University of Tulsa, Oklahoma

The Blues Fake Book, 400 Songs
Copyright 1999, Hal Leonard Corp.
ISBN 0-7935-5855-7

Trouble the Water:  250 Years of African American Poetry.
Edited and with an Introduction by  Jerry W. Ward, Jr. A Mentor Book  Copyright 1997
Jerry W. Ward, Jr
ISBN 0-451-62864-0

Marian Anderson, an album of songs and spirituals.
Edited by Frank Rupp
Copyright, 1948, by G. Schirmer, Inc.
ISBN 3 2088 00106 4069

The Great Music of Duke Ellington,
Belwin-Mills Pub. Corp.
Copyright 1973
by Billboard Publications
ISBN 3 2088 00186 4385

Song Classics of the ’50s,
Great Songs of the Century Series.
Warner Bros. Music
ISBN 3 2088 01767 6302

The Blues Line  A Collection of blues lyrics
Compiled by Eric Sackheim and Jonathan Shahn
The Ecco Press, copyright 1969
ISBN 0-88001-328-1

The New Best of Stevie Wonder
Copyright 1996
Warner Bros. Publications
ISBN 3 2088 02825 6623

The Poetry of Black America
Anthology of the 20th Century.
Edited by Arnold Adoff, introduction by Gwendolyn Bennett
Copyright 1973, Harper Collins Publishers
ISBN 0-06-020089-8

American Negro Poetry
An Anthology edited by Arna  Bontemps
Copyright 1974, revised edition.  Hill and Wang, New York
ISBN 0-8090-2521-3

Black Spirits,  A festival of new Black Poets in America
Edited by Woodie King
Copyright 1972
Random House, New York
ISBN 0-394-47620-4

The Vintage Book of African American Poetry
Edited and with Introduction by  Michael S. Harper & Anthony Walton
Copyright 2000
Vintage Books, Random House Ind., New York
ISBN 0-375-70300-7