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Mathew Henson, 1910
*Matthew Henson was born on this date in 1866. He was a Black explorer and member of the 1909 expedition with white-American explorer Robert Peary, credited with discovering the North Pole.
Matthew Alexander Henson's travels from Charles County, MD, began when he was just a teen. He ran away from home after his parent's death and sailed around the world for six years as a hand aboard the merchant vessel Katie Hines. When Peary hired him as a valet, Henson worked as a hat store clerk in Washington, D. C.
He traveled with Peary on a survey expedition to Nicaragua in 1897 and accompanied him on seven polar expeditions. Henson quickly proved indispensable as an Arctic navigator and translator among the Inuit (also known as Eskimos).
On April 6, 1909, an expedition of Peary, Henson, and four Inuit claimed to be the first to reach the North Pole. Henson, who usually broke trail while pulling a sled, may have reached the Pole 45 minutes before Peary, although the discovery of the North Pole is usually credited to Peary. In recent years, however, most scholars have concluded that the expedition reached a point at least a few miles from the North Pole. In 1912, Henson wrote the book, "A Black Explorer at the North Pole." In 1913, President Taft personally recommended Henson's appointment to the United States Customs House in recognition of his exploits in the Arctic.
In 1944 Henson received a joint medal from the Congress of the United States, honoring the Peary expedition to the North Pole. President Truman also honored him in 1950 and was admitted to the Explorer's Club, but he passed away in relative obscurity. In 1986, Henson was commemorated on a postage stamp. Two years later, he was reburied in Arlington National Cemetery in Virginia with full honors.
1001 things everyone should know about African American History
by Jeffery C. Stewart,
Copyright 1996, Doubleday
Reference Library of Black America Volumes 1 through 5
Edited by Mpho Mabunda
Copyright 1998, Gale Research, Detroit, MI