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Thu, 07.19.1500

From Africa to the Americas, Santeria!

This date from 1500, celebrates Santeria. Santeria is one of the many African syncretistic religions created in the Americas.  The word syncretistic means to "draw together" or "combine." In a religious environment, this involves the mixing of elements from different or independent religious traditions to create a new belief system.  It is an example of the intersectionality of African faith practiced from the 16th to the 21st century.

Santeria is based on the West African religions brought to the new world by Black slaves imported mainly to the Caribbean to work the sugar plantations.  These Africans carried with them their own sacred traditions, including a ritual of possession trance for communicating with the ancestors and deities.  Also they brought the use of animal sacrifice and the practice of sacred drumming and dance. The African slaves who were shipped in the Caribbean, and also central and South America were nominally converted to Catholicism.

Santeria incorporates the worship of the Orisha (literally "head guardian") and beliefs of the Yoruba and Bantu people in Southern Nigeria, Senegal and Guinea Coast by synchronizing these African cultures and religions with the surrounding elements of worship from Roman Catholicism. The process of the typical baptism upon arrival meant the African’s indigenous religious practices were suppressed.

In Santeria Blacks away from the continent developed a way of keeping their old beliefs alive by equating each Orisha of their traditional religions with a corresponding Christian Saint.  Each of them has an associated Christian Saint, a principle, important number, color, food, dance posture and emblem. The Orishas need food in the form of animal sacrifice, and prepared dishes, as well as human praise in order to remain effective. Ritual Sacrifices: These form an integral part of many Santerian religious rituals. The animal's blood is collected and offered to the Orisha. Chickens are the most common animal used. Their sacrifice is believed to please the Saints, and to bring good luck, purification and forgiveness of sins.

Many traditions within the religion recognize different equivalences. One common example includes: Babalz Ayi became St. Lazarus (patron of the sick). Shangs became St. Barbara (controls thunder, lightning, and fire). Eleggua or Elegba became St. Anthony (controls roads, gates etc). Obatala became Our Lady of Las Mercedes, and the Resurrected Christ (father of creation; source of spirituality). Oggzu became St. Peter (patron of war). Oshzn became Our Lady of Charity (controls money, sensuality). Deities: God is referred to as Olorun, or Olydnmare, the "owner of heaven". He is the supreme deity, the creator of the universe, and of the lesser guardians, called Orisha.

In Cuba this religious tradition has evolved into what we know today as Santería, the Way of the Saints. Santeria, more properly called La Regla Lucumi (as the Yoruba were called in Cuba).  Today hundreds of thousands of Americans participate in this ancient religion. Some are fully committed priests and priestesses, others are "godchildren" or members of a particular house-tradition, and many are clients seeking help with their everyday issues.  Many are of Hispanic and Caribbean descent but as the religion moves out of the inner cities, into the suburbs and a growing number are of African American and European white American heritage.

Reference:

Onterio Consultant of Religious Tolerance (OCRT )
PO Box 128
Watertown NY 13601-0128

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