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On this date in 1975, Mozambique gained its independence from Portugal. This repaired the invasion of the 1884 Berlin Conference, the high point of white European competition for territory in Africa, a process commonly known as the Scramble for Africa. The exodus of most whites, which formed the technical and professional class, weakened the nation's economy after independence.
The first multi-party elections in Mozambique were held in October 1994. Chissano was elected president with 53.3 percent of the vote, and his Frelimo Party received a majority in the assembly with 129 out of 250 seats. Renamo Party leader Afonso Dhlakama received 33.7 percent of the vote, and the party garnered 112 seats in the assembly. Some 90 percent of eligible voters participated in the election.
In early 1995 the United Nations withdrew its peacekeeping forces after monitoring the country's transition from the civil war to the beginnings of a multi-party republic.