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Nyerere and countrymen celebrating
*On this date in 1961, Tanzania gained independence from Britain.
In 1954, Julius Nyerere, a schoolteacher who was then one of only two Tanganyikans educated to the university level, organized a political party—the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). Through that party, Tanganyika became independent, retaining the British monarch as Queen of Tanganyika, and Nyerere became Prime Minister under a new constitution.
The country was a colony and part of German East Africa after the Berlin Conference when it became a British mandate under the League of Nations. One year later, a republican constitution was implemented with Nyerere as Tanganyika's first president. Zanzibar received its independence from the United Kingdom on December 10, 1963, as a constitutional monarchy under its Sultan. On January 12, 1964, the African majority revolted against the sultan.
A new government was formed with the ASP leader, Abeid Karume, as President of Zanzibar and Chairman of the Revolutionary Council. In the first few days of what would come to be known as the Zanzibar Revolution, between 5,000 and 15,000 Arabs and Indians were murdered.
During riots, followers of the radical John Okello carried out thousands of rapes and destroyed homes and other property. Within a few weeks, a fifth of the population had died or fled. The Tanganyika army revolted at this time, and Nyerere asked Britain to send troops. Royal Marines Commandos were sent by air from England via Nairobi, and 40 Commando came ashore from the aircraft carrier HMS Bulwark. Several months were spent with Commandos touring the country, disarming military outposts. When the successful operation ended, the Royal Marines left to be replaced by Canadian troops.
On April 24, 1964, Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. The country was renamed the United Republic of Tanzania in October of that year. Tanzania is a blend of Tanganyika and Zanzibar and previously had no significance. Under the terms of this union, the Zanzibar Government retains considerable local autonomy.