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*The Texas Revolution began on this date in 1835. This conflict was a rebellion of white and Tejanos (Hispanic Texans) in armed resistance to the centralist government of Mexico.
The revolution began after a decade of political and cultural clashes between the Mexican government and Texas's increasingly large population of white-American settlers. Mexico officially abolished slavery in Texas in 1829, and the desire of Anglo Texans to maintain the chattel slavery in Texas was also a major cause of secession.
The Mexican Congress passed the Tornel Decree, and only the province of Texas succeeded in breaking with Mexico, establishing the Republic of Texas. Colonizers and Tejanos disagreed on the goal and defeated the small garrisons of Mexican soldiers by mid-December 1835. The Talks declined to declare independence, leading to a lack of effective governance in Texas. An ill-conceived proposal to invade Matamoros siphoned much-needed volunteers and provisions from the Texian Army. In March 1836, a second political convention declared independence and appointed leadership for the new Republic of Texas.
Determined to avenge Mexico's honor, Santa Anna vowed to retake Texas personally. His Army of Operations entered Texas in mid-February 1836 and found the Texians needing to prepare. Mexican General José de Urrea led a contingent of troops on the Goliad Campaign up the Texas coast, defeating all Texian troops in his path and executing most of those who surrendered. On February 23, 1836, Santa Anna led a larger force to San Antonio de Béxar, where his troops defeated the Texian garrison in the Battle of the Alamo, killing almost all defenders.
A newly created Texian army under the command of Sam Houston. On April 21, 1836, Houston's army staged a surprise assault on Santa Anna and his force at the Battle of San Jacinto. The Mexican troops were quickly routed, and vengeful Texians executed many who tried to surrender. Santa Anna was taken hostage; in exchange for his life, he ordered the Mexican army to retreat south of the Rio Grande. Mexico refused to recognize the Republic of Texas, and intermittent conflicts between the two countries continued into the 1840s. The annexation of Texas as the 28th state of the United States in 1845 led directly to the Mexican American War.