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Sun, 08.10.1783

Vicente Guerrero, Soldier, and Politician born

Vicente Gurerro (bust)

*Vicente Guerrero was born on this date in 1783.  He was an Afro Mexican soldier, politician, and abolitionist

From Tixtla, Mexico Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldana was the son of Juan Pedro Guerrero and María Guadalupe Saldaño.  Guerrero began his military career in 1810 when he joined the independence movement against Spain under José María Morelos. After the main forces of the rebels’ army were defeated in 1815, Guerrero continued his guerrilla ideal against the Spaniards until 1821, when Mexico achieved independence. He served as a substitute member of the Supreme Executive Power from July 2, 1823, until Oct. 10, 1824.  In the election held in 1828, conservative Manuel Gómez Pedraza received eleven votes against the nine votes for the liberal candidate Guerrero and six for Anastasio Bustamante. The liberals decided to stage a coup, forcing the president-elect to split up his troop. Eventually, Pedraza fled the presidency on Dec. 3, 1828.

The National Congress nullified his votes and gave the presidency to Guerrero and vice presidency to Bustamante on January 12, 1829.  Guerrero was very active, with the most progressive legislation he pushed being the abolition of all slavery in 1829. Slavery was abolished in every area in Mexico except for Texas. Also, congress voted on a bill to expel every Spaniard from Mexico. The Spanish expedition left Cuba with 3,000 troops, arriving on the coast of Tamaulipas on July 27, 1829. Guerrero decided to place the defense on General Santa Anna, who began a long siege of Tampico held by the Spanish forces. By October, the invasion was repelled, but Guerrero refused to give back the dictatorial powers he had been granted. This allowed vice president Bustamante to pose as a champion of the constitution and administer the Plan de Jalapa (Dec. 4/5, 1829) designed to depose Guerrero.

On Dec. 16, 1829, Guerrero issued a decree to suppress the rebellion and passed the presidency to the Minister of Interior José María Bocanegra.  Within a week, Bocanegra was overthrown, and Congress entrusted Bustamante with the executive power. Guerrero was declared unfit "to govern the republic" though he initiated a counter-revolution, which lasted through the year 1830. Guerrero was captured in January 1831, condemned to death by a council of war, and executed on Feb. 14, 1831. 

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