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Mon, 12.05.1960

Boynton v. Virginia Ruled

*On this date 1960, Boynton v. Virginia was a decision by the Supreme Court of the United States. The case overturned a judgment convicting Bruce Boynton, a Black law student for trespassing by being in a restaurant in a bus terminal that was "whites only".

It held that racial segregation in public transportation was illegal because such segregation violated the Interstate Commerce Act, which broadly forbade discrimination in interstate passenger transportation. It moreover held that bus transportation was sufficiently related to interstate commerce to allow the United States federal government to regulate it to forbid racial discrimination in the industry.  Thurgood Marshall argued the case for Boynton. The majority opinion was written by Justice Hugo Black.  

The significance of Boynton is that its outlawing of racial segregation in public transportation led directly to escalate the Freedom Ride movement where African Americans and whites together rode various forms of public transportation in the South to challenge local laws or customs that enforced segregation. The Freedom Rides prompted Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy to confront the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) with its failure to enforce a bus desegregation ruling it had handed down in 1955, Keys v. Carolina Coach Company, as well as the companion train desegregation case, NAACP v. St. Louis-Santa Fe Railway Company, 297 ICC 335 (1955).

By presenting the Commission with its own rulings in a May 29, 1961 petition, Kennedy was able to prompt it to do what it had promised in 1955, five years before the Boynton ruling was handed down, and six years before the Freedom Riders set out to test Boynton across the Deep South. On September 22, 1961, the ICC issued regulations which implemented its 1955 Keys and NAACP rulings, as well as the Supreme Court's ruling in Boynton, and on November 1, those regulations went into effect, effectively ending Jim Crow in public transportation.  



New Poem Each Day

Poetry Corner

Sex fingers toes in the marketplace near your father's church in hamlet , North Carolina- witness to this love in this calm fallow of these minds, there is no substitute for... DEAR JOHN, DEAR COLTRANE by Michael S. Harper.
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