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Sun, 02.06.1605

The Palmares community of Brazil

Palmares statue

*The Palmares community in 1605 is affirmed on this date.  They are a Brazilian settlement of runaway and freeborn African slaves.

Palmares or Quilombo dos Palmares were located in the Serra da Barriga hills of northeastern Brazil. The term "Quilombo" is a link between Palmares and the culture of central Angola where the majority of slaves were forcibly brought to Brazil. During slave trafficking, natives in central Angola, called Imbangala, had created an institution called a "Kilombo." They were various tribes of diverse lineage in a community designed for military resistance against their oppressors. The Palmares was legendary for its size and power. An independent, self-sustaining republic, at its height it hosted a population of over 30,000 free African men, women and children.

Palmares successfully defended itself militarily against several attempts by Dutch and, later, Portuguese colonial powers to destroy it and kill or capture its citizens. The Cafuzos, or Maroons, of Brazil were fierce and cunning fighters trained in a martial arts form called Capoeira, developed in Brazil by African slaves in the 1500s. This acrobatic fighting style made the renegades of Palmares virtually invincible in hand-to-hand combat against the Europeans. The Portuguese defeated and over through the Palmares community on February 6, 1694.

With over 54% of Brazil's country of African decent the Palmares remain an active community in western Brazil.  In 2017, as Brazil marked 130 years since the abolition of slavery this year, the descendants of runaway slaves have been celebrating two major victories in their long fight to get legal title to their land.  In the northern state of Para, 500 of them in Quilombo Cachoeira Porteira took formal ownership of 543,631 acres this month, one of the largest such awards, after a legal fight that lasted more than two decades.

Some 16 million of the quilombolas, as the slaves's descendants are known, live in around 5,000 rural settlements, according to the Fundação Cultural Palmares, a government body that preserves and promotes Afro-Brazilian art and culture.

"The territorial guarantee is very important," said Juliana de Paula, a lawyer at advocacy group Instituto Socioambiental (ISA).  Yet the quilombolas face an uphill struggle as austerity measures have seen cuts to government departments aimed at lifting Brazil out of its worst recession in decades. INCRA, the government body tasked with managing and demarcating rural land, has seen its budget cut 90 percent since 2012 to just $1.46 million.

Erivaldo Oliveira, head of Fundação Cultural Palmares said,"These communities can only have access to public policies if they have land titles."  "The fight is very arduous ... we have to fight every moment as INCRA has no budget for land demarcation to quilombolas."

But threats are also looming from illegal loggers and gold miners encroaching on  quilombola land.  In a statement, INCRA said the February court ruling guaranteed legal security for land demarcation processes to benefit communities that lack titles.  De Paula said, "The government cannot be negligent claiming budget constraints forever," and that lack of land titles also made the quilombolas more vulnerable to pressure and violence from illegal loggers and gold miners encroaching on their land.

The number of quilombolas murdered in Brazil reached a record high of 14 in 2017, up from eight deaths in the previous year and just one case in 2015, according to a survey by the National Coordination of Rural Black Communities.  Advocacy group ISA said it was unclear whether the murders recorded in 2017 were related to conflicts over property, but at least six of those killed last year were leaders of the quilombola land rights movement.

Reference:
The Encyclopedia Britannica, Twenty-fourth Edition.
Copyright 1996 Encyclopedia Britannica Inc.
ISBN 0-85229-633-0

The World Book Encyclopedia.
Copyright 1996, World Book, Inc.
ISBN 0-7166-0096-X

Quilombos des Palmares

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