Today's Articles

People, Locations, Episodes

Tue, 10.16.1860

The Clotilda arrives in Alabama

Clotilda's remains

*On this date in 1860, the last American slave ship (on record) docked in Mobile Alabama. Called the Clotilda, the ship was a two-massed schooner, 86 feet (26 m) long with a beam of 23 foot. (7.0 m).

The Clotida was the last known slave ship to bring black captives from Africa to the United States.  It arrived at Mobile Bay, with 110-160 slaves.  The vessel was burned and scuttled at Mobile Bay, soon after.  The Clotilda was under the command of Captain William Foster, who was working for Timothy Meaher, a wealthy Mobile shipyard owner who had built Clotilda in 1856. Oral history mentions that Meaher bet some "Northern gentlemen" based in New England, who provided the financing for the illegal venture, that he could defy the 1807 Act Prohibiting Importation of Slaves without getting caught.  Meaher had learned that West African tribes were fighting and that the King of Dahomey was willing to trade Africans for U.S. $50 each in the Kingdom of Whydah, Dahomey. Foster arrived in Whydah on May 15, 1859, bought Africans from several different tribes and headed back to America.

When Clotilda arrived in the U.S., Federal authorities had been alerted to the illegal scheme. Fearful of criminal charges, Captain Foster arrived in the port at night and transferred his cargo to a riverboat, then burned Clotilda before sinking it. The African slaves were distributed to the investors in the Clotilda venture, with Meaher retaining 30 of the Africans on his property near Mobile.  Cudjo (aka Cudjoe) Lewis was among the 30 held by Meaher. Mobile was in the Deep South and blacks, whether Africans or native-born, were enslaved or treated as chattel. The American Civil War began the following year and ended in 1863 after the illegal enslavement of the Africans brought aboard Clotilda.  When freed, the Africans settled at Magazine Point, just north of Mobile, calling their community Africatown. They adopted their own laws and leaders, and they established the African Church. The community worked diligently: the women used their agricultural skills to raise and sell crops, and the men worked in mills for $1 a day, saving money to purchase the land.  They avoided whites as much as possible.

The last African slave survivor of the Clotilda middle passage was a man named Kazoola, who became Cudjo Lewis.  In 1927, Zora Neale Hurston, the African-American writer, interviewed Lewis for the Journal of Negro History and made a short film of him. During interviews, Lewis would tell about the civil wars in West Africa, in which members of the losing side were sold into slavery to Africans and Europeans. His tribe were Tarkars of West Africa. Cudjo related how he had been captured by warriors from neighboring Dahomey, taken into Whydah, and imprisoned within a slave compound. He had been sold by the King of Dahomey to William Foster and then transported to America.

After the Civil War, the Tarkar people asked the U.S. government to be repatriated, but they were denied.  They then tried to recreate a homeland in Mobile. They continued speaking their native language, used African gardening or cooking techniques, trying to retain their West African culture. For several years, Lewis served as a spokesman for the Tarkar people of Africatown. He was visited by many prominent blacks, among them Booker T. Washington.  Lewis eventually came to believe that Africans had to adopt the new country amid the brutally brutality of slavery and segregation. Cudjo Lewis died in 1935 at the age of 94.  

Many descendants of Lewis still reside in Africatown, a neighborhood of Mobile, Alabama.  In Africatown, the Union Baptist Church has the Cudjo Lewis Memorial Statue. In 1997 descendants and friends mounted a campaign to have the community designated a historical site.  Because Captain Foster burned and sank the ship upon arrival in Mobile Bay, archaeological searches continued for the wreck of the Clotilda in the bay.  In January 2018, a reporter for al.com claimed to have discovered the wreck of the Clotilda in the lower Mobile-Tensaw Delta, a few miles north of the city of Mobile, Alabama. The discovery was enabled by record low tides caused by the same storm system that caused the January 2018 North American blizzard.

Reference:

Washinton Post

NPR

New Poem Each Day

Poetry Corner

(for Toni Morrison) on a needful day your terribleness troubles the house like thunderclaps ripping a Delta sky. You gather a bushel of autumn, run faithfilled fingers over your threads. Your needles... COMFORT-MAKER by Jerry Ward Jr.
Read More