Today's Articles

People, Locations, Episodes

Sat, 11.25.1758

The “Hill District”, Pittsburgh

*This date in 1758 celebrates the “Hill District” a grouping of historically African American neighborhoods of Pittsburgh, PA.   

Locally, following the rebellion by slaves and gaining of independence of Haiti in 1804, the free Black community of the Hill District was called "Little Haiti." The early residents of the Hill District were middle-class free Blacks. In 2004 the Pittsburgh City Council announced commemoration of the 200th anniversary of Haiti's independence

Beginning in the 1910s, the Hill attracted migrants from elsewhere in the United States (particularly from the rural American South in the Great Migration) and from abroad. The neighborhood's Black population grew rapidly from around 10,000 in 1890 to over 37,000 by 1920. The influx of so many new residents resulted in a housing shortage which was exacerbated by the rigid system of segregation that limited potential housing for Blacks almost entirely to the Hill District. The experience of young, single Black men underscored the severity of the housing crisis. By virtue of housing segregation and their marital status, these men crammed into the limited number of units available in the district. The result was cramped boarding houses where workers slept in shifts. 

Beginning in the years leading up to World War I, "the Hill" was the cultural center of Black life in the city and a major center of jazz. Black entrepreneurs established and ran a large roster of nightspots that included nightclubs, bars, and gambling dens, all of which required a constant influx of musical acts to keep guests entertained.  The thriving musical culture which was widespread to the Hill for close to four decades led the neighborhood to be considered as "the Crossroads of the World" by poet Claude McKay. That phrase would be popularized by radio DJ Mary Dee (Mary Dee Dudley), of WHOD Radio, Pittsburgh's only Black radio station.  Also, the Negro League’s Pittsburgh Crawfords baseball team significantly represented the community. 

The concentration of entertainment spots along Wylie Avenue, Fullerton Street, and Center Avenue provided ready venues for both famous national acts and upstart local artists to perform.  Artists such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington made the Hill District a regular stop on national tours.  The benefits of networking often showed themselves through mentor-ship opportunities, as famous musicians could provide young artists with crucial career and technical advice. This was the case with renowned Pittsburgh-reared jazz pianist Mary Lou Williams, whose distinct left-hand-dominated playing style could be traced back to her youthful interactions with touring vaudeville artist Jack Howard as he played shows in the city; Williams would later note that he gave her professional advice that "would have taken me years and years to learn."  

The nationally syndicated Black-run newspaper "The Pittsburgh Courier also advertised the presence and the development of Pittsburgh-reared community.  Despite its cultural and economic vibrancy, in the mid-1950s a substantial area was slated for redevelopment, displacing about 8,000 individuals.   Playwrite August Wilson wrote memorable stage productions about the Hill District, the community he grew up in. Ten of his plays comprise a deliberate body of work unto itself: “The Pittsburgh Cycle,” also known as the “Century Cycle.”

The Hill District of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania as of 2010 the area comprises Census Tracts 305 (Crawford Roberts, "Lower Hill"), 501 (Crawford-Roberts, "Middle Hill), 506 (Upper Hill), 509 (Bedford Dwellings), 510 and 511 (Terrace Village). It is bordered by the Downtown on the west, the Strip District next to the Allegheny River and Polish Hill to the north, the Bluff (Uptown) on the southwest, and Oakland on the east and southeast.  The census tract/neighborhoods noted in the Hill District are represented on the Pittsburgh City Council by the council member for District 6 (Downtown neighborhoods). Part of the Upper Hill is also represented under District 7. The 15219 ZIP code covers all five neighborhoods, and the 15213 ZIP code covers part of Terrace Village and the Upper Hill.  

Reference:

Pittsburgh.PA.gov

New Poem Each Day

Poetry Corner

Robert Whitmore Having attained success in business possessing three cars one wife and two mistresses a home and furniture talked of by the town and thrice ruler of the local... ROBERT WHITMORE and ARTHUR RIDGEWOOD, M.D. by Frank Marshall Davis.
Read More